As part of work for a future blog post I decided to install and monitor an SSH honeypot 🍯 . A honeypot is a decoy designed to attract and monitor hostile users. Honeypots can serve as a canary—allowing system administrators to improve defenses throughout their network, or be used as a way to study attackers.
It’s powered by the following:
“Cowrie is a medium interaction SSH and Telnet honeypot designed to log brute force attacks and the shell interaction performed by the attacker”, developed by Michel Oosterhof, and is an actively maintained fork of Kippo.
Cowrie’s features include the ability to log an attacker’s movement through a fake filesystem and save files that attack attempts to download.
I would strongly advise against running Cowrie on a server that is hosting things you care about. Cowrie could have it’s own security issues and should be isolated from the rest of your environment.
I’ll assume you’re starting with a CentOS 7 server that has firewalld enabled. If you don’t have these configured you can follow my previous guide about setting up a CentOS 7 server in DigitalOcean. Stop when you reach the “Let’s Encrypt and Nginx” section.
If you have completed that section that’s fine too—it won’t impact the setup of the honeypot. However, I would strongly encourage you not to run a honeypot on the same host as things you care about, as mentioned above.
Reconfiguring SSH and Firewalld
We’ll need to move SSH to another port to make room for the honeypot.
sudo emacs /etc/ssh/sshd_config
- Uncomment and change
sudo systemctl restart sshd
In the future you will have to SSH into your server using
-p 222 appended, or edit your SSH config file to specify a port for this host. We’ll also have to make some changes to
Cowrie is not supposed to run as root, so we’ll need to redirect port 22 to a non-priveleged port. By default Cowrie runs on 2222, so we’ll use that.
# Open up port for real SSH connection $ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --add-port=222/tcp success $ sudo firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-masquerade --permanent success $ sudo firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-forward-port=port=22:proto=tcp:toport=2222 --permanent success $ sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --list-all public (default) interfaces: sources: services: ssh ports: 222/tcp masquerade: yes forward-ports: port=22:proto=tcp:toport=2222:toaddr= icmp-blocks: rich rules: $ sudo firewall-cmd --reload
Installing and Configuring Cowrie
You’ll need to install a handful of dependcies and Python libraries to install and run Cowrie.
$ sudo yum -y upgrade $ sudo yum install -y epel-release $ sudo yum install -y gcc libffi-devel python-devel openssl-devel git python-pip pycrypto $ sudo pip install configparser pyOpenSSL tftpy twisted==15.2.0 $ sudo adduser cowrie $ sudo passwd cowrie $ su - cowrie $ git clone https://github.com/micheloosterhof/cowrie.git $ cd cowrie $ mv cowrie.cfg.dist cowrie.cfg
cowrie.cfg file and uncomment
#listen_port = 2222. In this file you will find tons of options, which you can explore on your own.
Connecting to Cowrie
Start Cowrie and use
tail to monitor the logfile. You can stop Cowrie buy running
./start.sh Starting cowrie with extra arguments  ... $ tail -F log/cowrie.log
Open a local terminal tab, erase your server’s SSH fingerprint, and then SSH to the honeypot using the username ‘root’ and any password except ‘root’ or ‘123456’ as found in /honeyfs/etc/passwd file.
# Replace with your server's hostname local$ ssh-keygen -R 22.214.171.124 local$ ssh [email protected]126.96.36.199
You can view any active connections by going back to the terminal tab running
Any actions taken within the honeypot will be stored in the
log directory for you to review in the future. I find the .log file easier to view in realtime, and the .json files easier to parse.
You should expect a few hundred to a few thousand login attempts per day, which creates plenty of chances to test the various configuration options of Cowrie on your uninvited guests. I highly encourage you to dive into the Cowrie GitHub repo for an overview of additional features, and look at the codebase starting with the .cfg file.